Proteins, a sort of pure biopolymer that possess many outstanding deserves, have been extensively utilized to engineer nanomedicine for preventing in opposition to most cancers. Motivated by their ever-increasing consideration within the scientific neighborhood, this overview goals to offer a complete showcase on the present panorama of protein-based nanomedicine for most cancers remedy. On the idea of position variations of proteins in nanomedicine, protein-based nanomedicine engineered with protein therapeutics, protein carriers, enzymes, and composite proteins is launched. The most cancers therapeutic advantages of the protein-based nanomedicine are additionally mentioned, together with small-molecular therapeutics-mediated remedy, macromolecular therapeutics-mediated remedy, radiation-mediated remedy, reactive oxygen species-mediated remedy, and thermal effect-mediated remedy. Lastly, future developments and potential challenges of protein-based nanomedicine are elucidated towards scientific translation. It’s believed that protein-based nanomedicine will play an important position within the battle in opposition to most cancers. We hope that this overview will encourage intensive analysis pursuits from numerous disciplines to additional push the developments of protein-based nanomedicine within the biomedical frontier, contributing to ever-greater medical advances.